Machine Language (Low Level Language)


Computer understands only machine language that uses 0s and 1s. It is the lowest level language that computer understands. In machine language different instructions are formed by taking combinations of 0s and 1s. The computer converts all high level languages into machine language before executing any statements. Machine language is written in binary form that a computer can execute directly. These are also known as machine code or object code. This language is not feasible for humans to use because it consists entirely of binary numbers. If the word length of the machine is 16 bits (two byte) and we have to add two numbers (say 2 and 4) then we have to remember binary number that is used for addition (say 0100000011001100). This language is fastest in terms of execution in the sense that it does not need to be translated.

Advantage of Machine Language

Machine language has following advantages :

  1. Translation Free : Machine language is the only language that computer understands. Program written in languages other than machine language must be translated to machine language. However, the program written in machine language can be directly executed without any translation.
  2. High Speed : Since program written in machine language need not to be translated and hence conversion time is saved which enables execution of machine language program extremely fast.

Disadvantage of Machine Language

Machine language has following disadvantages :

  1. Machine Dependent : Program written in machine language are machine dependent and hence program developed for one system does not execute on other system.
  2. Complex Language for Programming : Since machine language consists only sequence of 0s and 1s, so it is very difficult for programmer to remember and write each instructions.
  3. Error Prone : While programming using machine language everything need to be expressed in sequence of 0s and 1s which is very tedious task. So errors are frequently occurred while programming using machine language.
  4. Time Consuming : Writing program in machine language is time consuming process.