# Python Bitwise Operators & Operations

Python has ** AND, OR, XOR, NOT, LEFT SHIFT and RIGHT SHIFT Bitwise opeartors** for different operations on integer numbers. Following section has individual explanation for each bitwise operators with operations.

**& :**Bitwise AND operation**| :**Bitwise OR operation**^ :**Bitwise XOR operation**~ :**Bitwise NOT operation**<<:**Bitwise LEFT SHIFT operation**>> :**Bitwise RIGHT SHIFT operation

## & (Bitwise AND Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise AND operations, you must know the following truth table for AND gate or AND operations

x | y | x & y |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

See following code to understand Bitwise AND (&) in Python

```
>>> 22 & 28
20
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(28)
'0b11100'
>>> bin(20)
'0b10100'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

and Number 28 in binary is `11100`

. Their AND (&) operation is illustrated below:

1 0 1 1 0 (22) 1 1 1 0 0 (28) -------------- 1 0 1 0 0 (20) Note: See bitwise AND operation according to above truth table for AND gate.

## | (Bitwise OR Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise OR operations, you must know the following truth table for OR gate or OR operations

x | y | x | y |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

See following code to understand Bitwise OR ( | ) in Python

```
>>> 22 | 28
30
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(28)
'0b11100'
>>> bin(30)
'0b11110'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

and Number 28 in binary is `11100`

. Their OR ( | ) operation is illustrated below:

1 0 1 1 0 (22) 1 1 1 0 0 (28) -------------- 1 1 1 1 0 (30) Note: See bitwise OR operation according to above truth table for OR gate.

## ^ (Bitwise XOR Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise XOR operations, you must know the following truth table for XOR gate or XOR operations

x | y | x ^ y |
---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

See following code to understand Bitwise XOR ( ^ ) in Python

```
>>> 22 ^ 28
10
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(28)
'0b11100'
>>> bin(10)
'0b1010'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

and Number 28 in binary is `11100`

. Their XOR ( ^ ) operation is illustrated below:

1 0 1 1 0 (22) 1 1 1 0 0 (28) -------------- 0 1 0 1 0 (10) Note: See bitwise XOR operation according to above truth table for XOR gate.

## ~ (Bitwise NOT Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise NOT operations, you must know the following truth table for NOT gate or NOT operations

x | ~ x |
---|---|

0 | 1 |

1 | 0 |

See following code to understand Bitwise NOT ( ~ ) in Python

```
>>> ~ 22
-23
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(-23)
'-0b10111'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

. ~22 = -23 but binary for -23 is not `01001`

as we expected from truth table, right? So, what happened here? This is because **Negative Numbers in Computer are Represented Using 2's Complement.**

## <<(Bitwise SHIFT LEFT Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise SHIFT LEFT operations, please look at the following code:

```
>>> 22 << 2
88
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(88)
'0b1011000'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

. Here ` 22 <<2 `

indicates binary representation for 22 is left shifted by 2 position. See following illustration:

22 => 1 0 1 1 0 1 position LEFT SHIFT => 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 position LEFT SHIFT => 1 0 1 1 0 0 0

Final `1011000`

is 88

## <<(Bitwise SHIFT RIGHT Opeartions)

To understand Bitwise SHIFT RIGHT operations, please look at the following code:

```
>>> 22 >> 2
5
>>> bin(22)
'0b10110'
>>> bin(5)
'0b101'
```

Here `0b`

is prefix for binary. Number 22 in binary is `10110`

. Here ` 22 <<2 `

indicates binary representation for 22 is right shifted by 2 position. See following illustration:

22 => 1 0 1 1 0 1 position RIGHT SHIFT => 0 1 0 1 1 2 position RIGHT SHIFT => 0 0 1 0 1

Final `00101`

is 5